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yiranY

Because I need it either for my story or curiosity.

My story:

Can animals generate chlorophyll using Magnesium ions given sufficient genetic material?

Would animals with human intelligence kiss to show affection (if possible)?

Do animals find what they eat taste good without flavouring? As in, do cows find grass or lions find meat delicious or just blegh.

How do feathers help birds with aerodynamics? How much more difficult is flying without feathers?

Is the presence six limbs plausible?

Is it possible for an animal to be medium-blooded (warm/coldness)?

Do female reptiles have estrous cycles?

How long is the female reptile pregnant after fertilisation, and how long does the offspring stay in the egg (compared to lifespan)?

Curiosity:

Why do pupils dilate when you're near someone you are attracted to?

What causes animals to be warm/cold blooded (I don't mean genetic information, I mean what are the differences that cause it to happen)?

Why do humans not have "heats" (reproduction-wise)?

What is the point of milk teeth?

Why did humans evolve to not have as much body hair?

Why do the armpits and p*** regions till have hair?

That's it for now I'll be back for more yey

9/24/2012 . Edited 9/24/2012 #1
stray.alchemist

I believe I should have introduced myself properly but, being a hopeless nerd, I just couldn't leave those questions alone. :D Forgive me, please!

1. In theory, it's possible to insert chlorophyll-related genes to an animal genome, and I'm sure such experiments have been conducted (especially bearing in mind that chlorophyll is just one of a whole family of organic particles that are usually involved in energy production in a cell). However, I'm not sure how efficient would it be and whether such animals would be even able to use it in their metabolism.

2. Animals have their own ways of showing affection, which we might perceive as weird, to say the least (I recommend some reading on bonobo; also, it's the only species other than humans that has sex for fun, not for reproduction purposes).

3. The sense of taste is very varied and complex in animals, so it would be best if you asked more precisely. But, overall, the sense itself emerged from nutritional needs - for example, most of people enjoy sweet taste because carbohydrates are our basic energy source, so their enjoyable taste is a reward for feeding ourselves with something valuable.

4. Feathers are very smooth, their surface is often covered with fatty substances produced by the bird, so they "smoothen" the flight and reduce friction. Also, they enlarge the surface which "catches" wind, enabling greater speed.

5. Why not? Think of insects. ;)

6. What do you mean by medium-blooded?

7. Huh, this one surprised me (it's the right time to admit I hated reptiles in zoology course, I guess. :D Only fish were worse.). I suppose it depends on the species.

I had so much fun answering those and remembering a few useless but interesting facts. Hope it helped. More answers are to come, if nobody writes them before I come back home ;)

9/24/2012 #2
yiranY

asdglhads;lfajdsf i love you

1. Why wouldn't animals be able to use it? Blood not mixing well with chloroplasts or something?

2. Dolphins and pigs do it for the pleasure too, I think. But still is kissing plausible? (I technically could just scream ARTISTIC LICENSE but I'd like to know anyway)

3. B-b-but starch, our main food source, does not taste sweet. ??? (at least if you don't wait until all your amylase turns it into maltose)

4. Doesn't catching wind mean they slow down? Also is featherless flight plausible?

5. More like mammals and reptiles and birds.

6. Between warmblooded and coldblooded.

7. Think lizard. I'm writing about dragons, so eh.

youareamazing

9/24/2012 #3
thelastpen

If you're asking for the purpose of xenobiology (alien biology), then really... whatever you want to be true can be true. As for your questions...

Animals - at least ones based on Earth - cannot generate chlorophyll without significant genetic engineering because their cells lack chloroplasts which are unique to plants. Without those, chlorophyll cannot be created.

Most species have their own ways of showing affection for each other if capable of the emotion. The likelihood of that being kissing in the human fashion would likely be dependent on having sufficiently human like features. It'd be fairly awkward for a couple of birds to kiss after all.

Simply from the reactions of my dogs who are far more interested in their kibble when a bit of gravy's been allowed to soak in, I would guess that flavor matters. Is it flavor patterns that we'd necessarily recognize? Possibly not, but that doesn't mean it doesn't factor.

As for the difference between avian and mammalian flight aerodynamics would probably be better answered by someone who studies bats and birds. Or via a google search. Birds cannot fly without feathers as far as I know because their feathers are what provides the lift surface. Their limbs are too thin to have enough lift to keep them aloft without it.

The presence of six limbs is certainly possible. Look at crustaceans for example.

Reptiles are way too huge of a class to answer regarding estrus, pregnancy duration and hatching times. Can you answer how long the female mammal is pregnant after all?

Pupillary response is generally involuntary. It can be caused by light changes or by changes in the brain as something gains the attention of the subject. It can also be a sign of sexual a***.

I cannot think of any creature being a mixture of warm and cold blooded on Earth, as the terms refer to how they use their energy: Cold blooded gain their heat energy from external sources and warm blooded generate it internally via their metabolism. The energy developed via metabolism in cold blooded creatures is used more for the purposes of mobility - catching more food or escaping for examples. The terms "hotblooded", "warmblooded", and "coldblooded" in horses refers to their temperament, not their actual blood.

Deciduous teeth - also known as "milk teeth", "baby teeth", or "fall teeth" - are simply the first stage of teeth found in mammalian growth development. They'll eventually fall out to make way for the permanent teeth.

I would guess that the reason we don't have much body hair is the development of clothing - thus negating the need for as much body hair - and natural selection - less hairy people might have been considered more desirable as breeding partners. It also probably has something to do with heat transfer. A person without as much body hair could probably cool down faster while running to chase down food.

Wouldn't even want to venture a guess on the g*** and armpit hair sticking around though.

9/24/2012 #4
yiranY

Thanks, although some of the questions weren't really answered...

"Given the genetic info" was in the question, so...

Sounds right. But I like my artistic license so heh.

Hmm, primary information, that's very nice to know. I CAN PROVE MY RESIDENT NITPICKER WRONG ABOUT HUMAN INTELLIGENCE ANIMALS WANTING FLAVOUR.

Bad wording in question. More like six limbs in big animals such as mammals.

True, think lizards (with long lifespans).

I knew that; but why? I also know that oxytocin which is produced during sexual a*** causes it to dilate by what is the evolutionary purpose? To get a better look of your lover???

Grammar Nazi! But warmblooded and coldblooded aren't even words in my resident dictionary...

Again I knew what milk teeth were, but why do we need them?

Yeah, but I don't think we've had clothes long enough for evolution to happen sufficiently for us to be this clean of body hair.

Heh.

9/24/2012 #5
The Lauderdale
(I recommend some reading on bonobo; also, it's the only species other than humans that has sex for fun, not for reproduction purposes).

Check out Biological Exuberance by Bruce Bagemihl, Pleasurable Kingdom by Jonathan Balcolmbe, and a number of other books on animal sexuality in the past decade. Old presumptions on this front are being challenged, and the view that animals uniformly have sex for reproduction and not pleasure has been disputed with a number of species.

9/24/2012 #6
thelastpen
"Given the genetic info" was in the question, so...

Well, to be fair "given sufficient genetic material" was in the question, but I don't see how it would matter. Earth based animals don't have chloroplasts because they don't need them.

Sounds right. But I like my artistic license so heh.

I guess you're referring to the kissing? Well, if you're talking about dragons, they really don't have a necessary component - namely lips. However, they do traditionally have long necks and tails, so there's always neck or tail twining.

Hmm, primary information, that's very nice to know. I CAN PROVE MY RESIDENT NITPICKER WRONG ABOUT HUMAN INTELLIGENCE ANIMALS WANTING FLAVOUR.

Lol Yeah, generally the more intelligent a species, the pickier about what they eat. Which isn't to say they won't eat the bland stuff. People will eat bland food after all if that's all there is.

Bad wording in question. More like six limbs in big animals such as mammals.

Well, I'm sure it's possible, but as far as I know quadrupedialism is more common than hexapedialsm here on Earth.

True, think lizards (with long lifespans).

Lizards are still a very broad and diverse category. Way too broad to generalize.

9/24/2012 #7
yiranY

How do you quote grrr.

Well genetic engineering does apply in my case :P

Hmm, maybe just excessive nuzzling. Animals do have more sensitive facial nerves as well, right?

Fine, fine, what would be a plausible time period for dragons? (Given lifespans of approximately 150 years)

9/24/2012 #8
thelastpen

For your dragons you'd have to make up your own rules. And lifespan doesn't really factor into the reproductive cycle length of mammals and reptiles as far as I know. After all, humans have had a lifespan of something a bit over 30 years and we're now into 75 for the average, but we've always had a nine month pregnancy with a monthly estrus cycle. You might try looking into the Komodo dragon's reproductive cycle - it's about 8.5 months in the egg with about a month of gestation in the body before they're laid.

9/24/2012 #9
April Dawn Irene
Funny, I thought doggie and kitty licks were shows of affection....
9/24/2012 #10
stray.alchemist

@yiranY: always happy to oblige!

1. Using any chemical in the process of gaining energy requires a specific and complicated enzymatic system (that's the thin line between molecular biology and physics that I love so much, but I'm not sure whether you want me to elaborate on it). However, I guess that genes coding those enzymes could be transferred, too.

2. I haven't heard of it, but I'm not that arrogant to assume thus it's impossible. ;)

3. Yup, you're right, but on the other hand, how often do you eat starch as starch? We're talking evolution and processes that took place thousands of years ago, when diet consisted mostly of fruit, meat and nuts, there was no bread and food processing wasn't developed at all.

4. There are too types of flight: active (when bird flaps its wings, and here the reduction of friction is useful) and passive (when it drifts on air currents, hence greater surface is more than helpful).

5. The warm- and cold-blooded thing has been explained, so I'll move on to the next question. :)

6. As for lizards and their reproductory cycles, I've taken a few closer looks at my notes from the uni, but it didn't help much. I hope some expert on zoology joins the discussion, as now I'm curious about it, too.

And as for dilation of pupils - it's a part of greater mechanism, known as FFFF response (fight, flight, freeze or f**k). It occurs whenever an individual experiences a***, regardless of its source. Could be a poisonous snake or a lover, doesn't matter for our endocrine glands. A chemical cascade (starting with adrenaline) occurs, preparing the body for what might happen: blood vessels constrict, heart and lungs accelerate, digestion slows down, nutrients are released to the muscles, etc, etc. Dilation of pupils is one of such elements - it results in more light reaching the photoreceptors and better vision. In case of a predatory attack, it's clearly understood, as it might save one's life. In case of sexual a***, it's more of a general effect than of any particular purpose. Our bodies don't differentiate between sources of stress or a*** - the reaction is basically the same, it's the brain that does the evaluation.

(BTW, there was that experiment in social psychology where men had to walk on a very unstable bridge over a chasm - which induced their stress and fear - and later rated a female experimenter as very attractive, attributing what they felt to sexual a*** rather than fear.)

@The Lauderdale: thanks a lot for those titles, I'll definitely look for them!

9/24/2012 #11
Canisse

2 - Kissing (on the mouth) wasn't universal in the past. It was a custom spread by the west, I think. So, your animals could kiss if they wanted to; but they would only find it pleasurable in a sexual way if they had enough nerve endings in the region (I have no idea as to which species do)

11 - I believe that humans actually do have heats, though they might be slighter than other animals.

12 - Here I'm purely guessing, but milk teeth are much smaller than adult teeth, which wouldn't really fit in a child's mouth. So, you've got two sizes of teeth for two sizes of mouth.

14 - No idea for the armpits, but the p*** hairs might be there for protection, like eyelashes.

9/24/2012 #12
Wildcard999

Would animals with human intelligence kiss to show affection (if possible)?

Animals, like people, have their own culture and attractions. Animals would do the same thing they already do to show affection. Cats will rub their bodies and face on each other, clean each other's coats and do other things that prove their trust and care for another. And other animals would be similar, keeping to their own preexisting cultural displays of affect (should they exist). If they were human at one time, but then became animals with human intelligence, they would likely attempt to try the same things they used to do in human bodies though.

Do animals find what they eat taste good without flavouring? As in, do cows find grass or lions find meat delicious or just blegh.

Of course they like the taste. That's why they eat it. Well, usually. Hunting animals that eat carrion (dead already, probably for hours or days) probably don't like the taste, but they're too hungry to care, which is why they're eating it. They prefer live kills though. That tastes the best. My cat, Maddy, loves the taste of wet cat food, but she can't stand human food because the taste reminds her of her traumatic past. They definitely have taste buds, I guarantee it.

How do feathers help birds with aerodynamics? How much more difficult is flying without feathers?

I think the feathers have to do with being able to slow the air that passes under the feather layers down, but I'm not really sure. Idk how much harder flying without feathers is for non-birds, but I can tell you that the reason bats are so erratic has nothing to do with the feathers and everything to do with their lack of a separate tail. A bird has many feathers it can move and adjust independent of it's wings, but a bat has skin flaps that are also connected to the back legs, which are connected to the wings, making it difficult to stabilize. There's less range of motion in a bat's tail.

Is the presence six limbs plausible?

Maybe, but so far, most of what I've seen shows double forward limbs, and the issue with that is that the muscle on top of the shoulder is usually shown as going directly into the arm pit of the next forelimb set. It makes the muscles not work properly. Truthfully, the lower set of forelimbs would have to have a much shortened range of motion. Actually, the back limbs have the gluteus maximus capping that end which would also be impossible for a secondary set of limbs.

Is it possible for an animal to be medium-blooded (warm/coldness)?

The difference between warm blooded and cold blooded is the animal's source of heat. Warms take get theirs internally, colds get it externally. A 'medium' would have to be both, depending on some kind of cycle or something, wouldn't it? Because there's no in between that I can think of.

Curiosity:

Why do pupils dilate when you're near someone you are attracted to?

Not sure, but I'd assume it has something to do with the increased blood flow, which is caused by the heightened emotional state.

What causes animals to be warm/cold blooded (I don't mean genetic information, I mean what are the differences that cause it to happen)?

Cold blooded animals do not have the ability to regulate their body temperature. Humans have an internal thermostat which causes extra heat to be produced in the cold and less heat produced in the heat. That's what causes shivering. Some humans can have damage to the area of the brain that handles this and will need to be iced down when it's hot or given extra warmth in the cold, just like a reptile.

Why do humans not have "heats" (reproduction-wise)?

Humans are not driven by instinct much because our actions are heavily determined by learned responses and cognitive choices. Likely as not, any other species which gains human intelligence would experience the same, but probably only eventually. A sudden development might result in both vying for control of the animal. We reproduce by choice, often because we enjoy the act itself.

What is the point of milk teeth?

To not hurt mom when nursing. No one needs to rip mom's flesh apart, so they have a different set to protect mom.

Why did humans evolve to not have as much body hair?

People can only guess, but there's a new theory that we were semiaquatic at one point, like amphibians, living mainly in the water, but also still land-capable. This allowed us to developed year-round fat pads just under the skin (a blubber layer), the ability to regulate our breathing so we could hold our breaths underwater, webbing in our fingers and toes, a natural comfort in the water not shared by other primates and a new sort of body hair that's streamlined in the water, allowing us to move better through it.

Why do the armpits and p*** regions till have hair?

Good question. Why does the head still have hair? P*** hair is probably for protection, to keep dirt, grime and other things out of sensitive areas, like nose hair, but I have no idea about armpit hair. Maybe it's because it doesn't do so much to your aerodynamics in the water due to the water mostly being blocked by your shoulder when swimming forward.

Hopefully I've answered a lot of questions others missed.

Edit:

1. Why wouldn't animals be able to use it? Blood not mixing well with chloroplasts or something?

Using chlorophyll affects a lot of systems which are currently set up to take in energy from digested food. You do a lot more than just inject the chlorophyll into the cells. The method of storing energy is also entirely different, and it may be a necessity, I'm not sure. Then, of course, there's all the outdated systems too, which can be nixed if you're going to switch over to chlorophyll entirely.

2. Dolphins and pigs do it for the pleasure too, I think. But still is kissing plausible? (I technically could just scream ARTISTIC LICENSE but I'd like to know anyway)

Not very. Few animals have mouths properly set up for that. The lips have little dexterity or maneuverability, and the thought of a face going right into yours is very intimidating to most animals and they don't like it.

3. B-b-but starch, our main food source, does not taste sweet. ??? (at least if you don't wait until all your amylase turns it into maltose)

Lol, mostly does not mean entirely. People like alcohol, weed and other drugs too, but research shows terrible consequences to your body for all of them. Especially when taken in excess.

4. Doesn't catching wind mean they slow down? Also is featherless flight plausible?

If you knew more about aerodynamics, you'd know that slowing some of the air down is crucial to flight. I think it creates a bubble of air that the other air goes around, creating less friction (since the slow air doesn't mind moving), therefore making the bird go faster. It's like lubing up for a ride down the slide. You go faster when you're coated in oil, don't you?

9/24/2012 . Edited 9/24/2012 #13
Ragnelle

On warm- and coldblooded horses: that is more than temperament, it has to do with the breeds, and how their muscles work. A warmblooded breed will have a more efficient cooling system (blood vessels closer to the skin, begin to sweat quicker, thiner skin etc) and muscles that are more explosive: able to move swiftly with rapid acceleration. They do not require the same warming up of muscle. Coldblooded horses do not have that efficient cooling system: you will rarely see the blood vessels, they have often a thinker coat of hair and more fat-tissue, and their muscles are slower-wroking. The kind that does not accelerate very quickly, nor gain much top-speed, but which can drag or carry heavy loads over a longer periods. They need longer for their muscles to warm up to the point where they work efficiently.

The more confusing part, is that warmbloods are considered a cross between hot-blooded horses and cold-blooded ones. But, generally what I have said about warmbloods, applies to thoroughbreds (English and Arabians), which are considered the hot-blooded breeds. Only in a lager degree than most warmbloods, which really are crossbred a lot. (Horse-nerd here, had to comment)

9/24/2012 #14
NaruTard 1.5

I have a random question ._.

How the f*** do scientists think birds evolved from raptors ....

Or was that just a thing for the movie lol

9/24/2012 #15
Captain Zangano
Well, I'm sure it's possible, but as far as I know quadrupedialism is more common than hexapedialsm here on Earth.

In the animal kingdom, insect species out number all other animal species 3:1, with about 900,000 known species of insects. And it has been estimated that there are 10,000 trillion indivdual ants on Earth (and that their biomass is equal to that of humans.) :)

How the ** do scientists think birds evolved from raptors ....

Or was that just a thing for the movie lol

I think it was because when they did protein sequencing of dinosaur tissue it was more similar to birds than alligators. And the bone structure of birds and dinosaurs are very similar. Have you ever looked at a bird's feet? I swear, they look like little dinosaurs/lizards, lol. )

9/24/2012 . Edited 9/24/2012 #16
One B.A. Human

I think you will find that humans are in "heat" all the time. ;)

9/24/2012 #17
NaruTard 1.5
I think you will find that humans are in "heat" all the time. ;)

Especially the ones who read P* ....

You know, there's one thing about 'biology' that I don't get.

How does the pain actually start in your head O.O I'm pretty sure that I'm feeling a third degree burn on my FINGERTIP if I touch the stove lol

actually a good question...what does the brain use to make those signals to nerves.

9/24/2012 #18
Miss Shad

what does the brain use to make those signals to nerves.

Isn't the nervous system connected to the brain in some way? (Not a medical expert by ANY STRETCH OF THE IMAGINATION...)

9/24/2012 #19
Corinne Tate

I really had to laugh at this list of questions. I love it when people think and ask about things like this, as I'm sure we've all wondered, but were afraid to ask.

I have some guesses on a few of those, if they're not already answered.

I doubt birds can fly without feathers. I know they clip some feathers to keep pet birds flightless. Feathers are hollow and light, and their coating helps them catch and move the air. They also help them navigate, like the rudders on a plane.

I suspect we still have p*** hair, because it happens to be in places where there's friction. Sure we can shave it and not get a rash, but we also have clothing, lotions, anti-perspirant, etc. to keep us from getting skin irritations.

As far as the pupils dilating during attraction, I would guess that it's because we didn't always have language, and had to rely on subtle cues to find a mate.

Well, I'm going to quit, before I prove how totally ignorant I am in this area.

9/25/2012 . Edited 9/25/2012 #20
Ragnelle

The brain is a part of the nervous system. A very important one ;)

I am not good at the mechanic of the thing (I think the signals are a bit like electrical signals), but as to why you feel the pain in the finger, that is pretty obvious: pain is a warning that something is not right. If you can't locate where the wrong is, then the signal is not very useful. There are people that feel no pain (that part of their system does not work), and that is very dangerous for them. If they can't feel that they are hurt, they are likely to keep on hurting themselves. Or not take care of the injury so that it festers.

9/25/2012 #21
Aspiring Hobby

Also people who can't feel pain also suffer from a deformation of their body. I have heard it that their body starts crippling and causes many types of incurable disease leading to their early teen deaths.

9/25/2012 #22
thelastpen
Also people who can't feel pain also suffer from a deformation of their body. I have heard it that their body starts crippling and causes many types of incurable disease leading to their early teen deaths.

That's actually not entirely true. People suffering from congenital analgesia, or the inability to feel pain, can live full lives. Yes, they have an increased danger of untreated injury becoming infected or more severe and diseases being caught too late, but outside of that they are no more at risk of an early death than anyone else. Sometimes it's caused by too many endorphins (happy hormones) being produced by the brain and blocking the pain receptors - in which case it's treatable by prescription medication. In other cases it's caused by a mutation of their bodies ability to produce a certain protein properly. People with this condition could also have mild learning disabilities and could even show signs of an impaired blink reflex (your natural reaction to blink when something comes towards your face).

I think you might be thinking of the Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy, or HSAN family, of diseases which have inability to feel pain as a symptom of the disease. It also tends to be accompanied by ulcerations of the afflicted area of the body (as not all types of HSAN are full body) as well as bodily deformities. Victims of this family of diseases may also have trouble expressing or creating tears, inability to suckle as newborns, and poor body temperature regulation - which part of the reason they tend to not live to adulthood.

Yay for obsessive research over minor details of characters while writing. XD

9/25/2012 #23
NaruTard 1.5

I'm curious about the physical causes of MPD :P

What changes in the body that makes someone create another persona, :P I know about 90% of MPD is caused from things like mental impulses and PDS (Post Dramatic Stress? HELLO SAMUS :3 ) or some disturbing something happening to the host that causes them to 'split' or maybe even forge the alternate persona themselves.

But seriously....I wonder if there are any physical (obviously not on the outside) changes that happen :3

I have a Naruto OC with MPD lol she's fun to rp as XD so I'm curious about that...

9/25/2012 #24
Aspiring Hobby

Well you beat me to it. I actually realised my mistake as soon as I posted so then I started editing it but got distracted by a phone call. Yeah you are completely correct there. I actually was thinking of HSAN. Anyway,

The question about: what does the brain use to make those signals to nerves.

Let's say you step on a rock. How does a sensory nerve in the peripheral nervous system know this is any different than something like a soft toy?Different sensory nerve fibers respond to different things, and produce different chemical responses which determine how sensations are interpreted. Some nerves send signals associated with light touch, while others respond to deep pressure. Special pain receptors called nociceptors activate whenever there has been an injury, or even a potential injury, such as breaking the skin or causing a large indentation. Even if the rock does not break your skin, the tissues in your foot become compressed enough to cause the nociceptors to fire off a response. Now, an impulse is heading through the nerve into the spinal cord, and eventually all the way to your brain. This happens within fractions of a second.

An area of the spinal cord called the dorsal horn acts as an information hub, simultaneously directing impulses to the brain and back down the spinal cord to the area of injury. The brain does not have to tell your foot to move away from the rock, because the dorsal horn has already sent that message since it is able to make decisions of sorts of its own called the "reflex".

Even though the spinal reflex takes place at the dorsal horn, the pain signal continues to the brain. This is because pain involves more than a simple stimulus and response. Simply taking your foot off the rock does not solve all of your problems. No matter how mild the damage, the tissues in your foot still need to be healed. In addition, your brain needs to make sense of what has happened. Pain gets catalogued in your brain's library, and emotions become associated with stepping on that rock.

When the pain signal reaches the brain it goes to the thalamus, which directs it to a few different areas for interpretations. A few areas in the cortex figure out where the pain came from and compare it to other kinds of pain with which is it familiar. Was it sharp? Did it hurt more than stepping on a tack? Have you ever stepped on a rock before, and if so was it better or worse?

Signals are also sent from the thalamus to the limbic system, which is the emotional center of the brain. Ever wonder why some pain makes you cry? The limbic system decides. Feelings are associated with every sensation you encounter, and each feeling generates a response. Your heart rate may increase, and you may break out into a sweat. All because of a rock underfoot.

While it may seem simple, the process of detecting pain is complicated by the fact that it is not a one-way system. It isn't even a two-way system. Pain is more than just cause and effect: it is affected by everything else that is going on in the nervous system. Your mood, your past experiences and your expectations can all change the way pain is interpreted at any given time. How is that for confusing?

If you step on that rock after you have a fight, your response may be very different than it would if you had just won the lottery. Your feelings about the experience may be tainted if the last time you stepped on a rock, your foot became infected. If you stepped on a rock once before and nothing terrible happened to you, you may recover more quickly. You can see how different emotions and histories can determine your response to pain. In fact, there is a strong link between depression and chronic pain.

In this scenario, after your foot healed, the pain sensations would stop. This is because the nociceptors no longer detect any tissue damage or potential injury. This is called acute pain. Acute pain does not persist after the initial injury has healed.

Sometimes, however, pain receptors continue to fire. This can be caused by a disease or condition that continuously causes damage. With arthritis, for example, the joint is in a constant state of disrepair, causing pain signals to travel to the brain with little down time. Sometimes, even in the absence of tissue damage, nociceptors continue to fire. There may no longer be a physical cause of pain, but the pain response is the same. This makes chronic pain difficult to pin down and even more difficult to treat.

9/25/2012 #25
stray.alchemist

How I love this nerdy thread.

Don't get me started on mind and brain (or do, if you're looking for some more nerdy ramble!).

As for MPD... well, that's a bit slippery. Many people dealing with neurosciences and psychology doubt if such phenomenon even exists. Of course, it's very attractive when we think in terms of pop-culture, but there haven't been many cases of it, and we're not talking how well documented they were (usually rather poorly tbh). Some suggest that often the therapists induce such symptoms in their patients (but that's a whole different fascinating story of how powerful - and dangerous - fashions in psychiatry and psychology could be). I'm not saying MPD does not exist, as some people clearly show symptoms of dissociation and behave inconsistently (e.g. in schizophrenia and some personality disorders), but the whole "different personalities in one body" part is a myth, and more than just an exaggeration. I'd say that the thing we might perceive as MPD is actually a combination of different symptoms and disorders.

@Alice the Noble - I sense a fellow neuroscientist, am I right? :)

9/25/2012 . Edited 9/25/2012 #26
Aspiring Hobby

I forgot to add this before:

Why do the armpits and p*** regions till have hair?

Hair originally evolved as whiskers on the snouts of primitive mammals so that they can feel their surroundings while moving about in the dark. They still serve the same purpose, for example, in cats and other animals that still have them. Primates are diurnal (active mostly during the day) so we have lost them. Subsequently, whiskers appeared all over the rest of the mammal's body due to a mutation and they serve primarily as insulation, because mammals have evolved endothermy, or the internal generation of body heat. Reptiles do not generate heat within their bodies to keep warm, so they don't have or need insulation. Since humans evolved in the hot, dry open savanna, we have lost much of our body hair, because we no longer need the insulation. Notable exception to the general loss of body hair are the hair on top of our heads, which trap air and insulate us from the sun. As you noticed, we also have p*** hair and armpit hair. That means these hairs are functional. Since heat kills s***, p*** hair may help cool the area so that s*** would have a better chance to survive. Eyebrows probably keep the rain water from getting into our eyes. That leaves armpit hair. It has been shown through experimentation that women are attracted to the sweat of men. A researcher, in one experiment, applied male sweat to some seats in a concert event, IIRC, and when the door opens, several women went and sat directly on those seats, even though other seats were available and those seats they sat on do not appear to provide a particularly good view of the stage. Recently research has also shown that "...male underarm extracts can affect the cycles of a specific reproductive hormone in women. Those extracts also affected the mood of women, making them calmer and more relaxed." If that is the case, then the armpit hair may function to trap those phermones so men who have armpit hair would be more likely to succeed in courtship. Natural selection, therefore, would naturally result in the retention of armpit hair in humans.

@Alice the Noble - I sense a fellow neuroscientist, am I right? :)

No, actually I am not. It is all through a combination from research on the net and me having medical field friends who just love to talk about such things. :)

9/25/2012 #27
thelastpen

There was a study in 1993, I believe, that suggested that most cases of Dissociative Identity Disorder (the more approved name for what was once called MPD) are actually improperly diagnosed cases of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), though there was something like a third of the cases reviewed which could not be diagnosed as BPD, suggesting that DID could be over-diagnosed and that what is perceived as stress related DID is actually a phenomenon of some form of BPD which relates to self-image issues.

9/25/2012 #28
NaruTard 1.5

I'm no neuroscientist :/

But I think MPD is just a serious case of Bipolar disorder, which is kind of similar.

Basically with bipolar disorder the subject isn't aware of the changes in personality, often they're thought of as extreme mood swings. (An extremely happy person becoming randomly angry for some unknown reason) MPD however the host seems to be aware of these mood changes, and sometimes believes that these mood swings or 'changes' in personality are another persona, usually given a pet name or something. To identify the fact that this other persona isn't their normal attitude, not so much to call it another personality.

However the difference between bipolar and mpd, with mpd the host stays in this alternate state of mind for longer periods of time, with no apparent physical or mental causes. (though it could be some subconscious cause, like a stress caused by a memory, peer pressure etc) Bipolar hosts usually have things that 'trigger' these impulses, sometimes it's a word or phrase, or even an image, or even just something going the 'wrong' way at the wrong time.

A good way to make MPD believable, in a fictional situation at least, make the cause for the alternate persona to come out something logical.

For my Naruto OC that has MPD, she has to be knocked unconscious in order for the alternate persona to take over. the only way to return to her 'normal' persona is to be knocked out again, or to cause them to bust out laughing.

9/25/2012 #29
thelastpen

Bipolar Disorder and DID (MPD is not the proper term) are not the same thing. One is a mood disorder and the other is a personality disorder. One of the key criteria of DID is that the subject is not aware of the changes in personality, though they may abstractly be aware of the existence of other personalities. The length of time spent in the "altered state" varies from individual to individual. One person with bipolar could exist in a manic or depressive state for days or weeks, while another may only last within it for a short time. There are more reasons why they're different but I don't have time to get into them.

I would strongly advise against writing people with mental/emotional disorders and disabilities unless you are fully aware of what you're doing. No one likes nasty inaccurate stereotypes being propagated about them or their friends and family.

9/25/2012 #30
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